Jewel Day- March 13

"Diamonds are the girl's best friends." This sentence that Marilyn Monroe said in the movie "Gentlemen Prefer Blondes" in 1953 is etched in our memory forever.
But besides diamonds there are lots of other types of gemstones. There are more than 130 types of minerals in nature from which gemstones are processed.
There are also gemstones that are synthetically produced in a laboratory using crystalline growth technology.
From the dawn of history, humans have been drawn to the beautiful and rare stones, processed them and made jewelry out of them.
There are mystics who believe that gems have different virtues and properties and that one can call a person their future through them or treat problems and diseases. Some believe that precious stones give a person who holds them powers or protects him.
A birthstone is a nickname for a gemstone that symbolizes the month of birth in the Gregorian calendar. It is customary to give as a birthday gift the birthday stone inlaid with jewelry. This custom is mostly accepted in the US, Australia and Thailand and more countries that sell birthstones in jewelry stores.

Birthstones by Month:

January- Garnet 
Identified with the garnet stone, one of the breastplate stones.
Recognized as the stone of commitment - strengthens commitment and adherence to a specific goal. Symbolizes strength and perseverance.
Historical background - In ancient Egypt it was believed to be a symbol of life. In the Middle Ages it was used as a medicine to treat diseases. Because of its reddish color it was believed that it heals bleeding and stimulates the blood circulation in the body. In India and Persia the garnet was considered an amulet worn by warriors against poisoning, plagues and lightning strikes.
Another belief is that the portrait of a lion carved in garnet stone will preserve the health of the wearer and protect him from road accidents.
According to the theory of crystals, garnet is effective in curing poisoning, depression and hypothyroidism. It raises awareness of emotional intentions and releases sexual inhibitions. Also effective in treating back and neck pain.
Mining locations: South Africa, Australia, Brazil, Sri Lanka, North America, Czech Republic, Madagascar, India, Australia.


February - Amethyst
One of the stones of the breastplate. 
The name Amethyst comes from the Greek word Amethyst - "not intoxicate". Greek warriors used to drink amethyst-covered wine before the battle, believing that this substance would prevent them from getting drunk. Pliny the Younger, who lived in the second century AD in Greece, claimed that the root of the name in Greek is derived from the oval color of the stone, which is similar to the color of the wine.
In ancient Egypt, soldiers would take amethyst stones with them to the battlefield to save them from death.
In the Christian church, Hasmoneans wore the amethyst stone, which symbolizes purity and divine understanding. To this day the amethyst is embedded in their traditional clothing.
The English royal house has a place of honor for the amethyst stone. Edward the Confessor was the first king of England to wear it during his reign in the 11th century. Royal Princess Charlotte wore a necklace of amethyst stones.
Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia in the 18th century, wore an amethyst necklace "shining in the night like a red flame" received from the Ural Mountains.
The amethyst was the beloved stone of St. Valentine. His ring was inlaid with amethyst and engraved with a portrait of Cupid.
According to the theory of crystals, amethyst balances the energy centers of man and increases spiritual understanding. According to the Indian belief, it can also help open the third eye, the eye of the soul.
In ancient times it was believed in its ability to facilitate withdrawal from various addictions like alcohol and sweets. It was also believed that it could strengthen the wisdom and faith of the stone-wearers.
Other medicinal properties: relief of insomnia and headaches, protection against infectious diseases and bad thoughts.
Mining place: In ancient times - India and Saudi Arabia.
Nowadays - Brazil, Uruguay, United States, Madagascar, India, Russia.


March - Aquamarine
The origin of the name (Aquamarine) is in the Latin word "sea water", and is derived from the blue-green color of the stone.

Healing properties and properties attributed to aquamarine-
In ancient times it was believed that the aquamarine is a symbol of hope and promise for a better future, eternal love and heroism. In the Middle Ages it was believed that stone helped in foresight and in treating eye problems. Its color made it a symbol of happiness and youth, and it even served as an amulet against accidents. Aquamarine was also known as the "Stone of Eternal Life", and was therefore considered a stone that brings good luck to its owner. In the Middle Ages the stone was called a "magical sight", and fortune tellers used it to predict the future.
The jewelry of the English royal house is inlaid with a large aquamarine stone in the crown of "St. Edward", the crown of the coronation of the kings of England.
The crown of "St. Edward", which is the official coronation crown of the kings of England, set with 444 gems and diamonds, is also set with a large aquamarine stone. The crown is included among the treasures of the jewelry of the kings of England.
One of the places where the aquamarine is mined is Russia, and the stone was especially fond of Empress Catherine the Great, Queen of Russia in the 18th century.
Napoleon Bonaparte was clothed in a cloak in which the aquamarine stones were inlaid in the buckle at his coronation in 1804.
Mining locations: Brazil, Russia, Madagascar, USA, Afghanistan, Zambia.


April - Diamond
Diamond is the hardest material in nature.
In English the word Diamond comes from the Greek word ad├ímas, which means "submissive". Here, too, the word implies the hardness of the stone.
In the millennium BC, Indian Prince Dravidian wore diamonds that he believed would help him live forever.
The kings of Europe in different periods used to insert the diamond in the crown out of the belief that whoever wears a diamond is affected by its power.
King Louis XIII, who reigned in France in the 17th century, enacted a law that allowed only kings to carry diamonds.
The diamond has a high refractive index, excellent transparency, has a very high thermal conductivity property, has a low diffusion coefficient, the diamond is chemically inert, does not conduct electricity and therefore insulates excellently, shines in ultraviolet light.
The color of the diamond is transparent, yellow, brown, pink, green, blue or red.
In Italian the diamond is called "Amenta-de-Dio", which means "the mistress of God". This may be why a diamond is the favorite stone for a wedding ring.
To this day it is believed that a diamond given as a gift to a woman arouses her love and melts her heart, thus restoring a strained relationship. A common custom is a marriage proposal with a diamond ring as a gift.
Mining locations:
The oldest known diamond mines were in India, about 3,000 years ago. India was the only source of diamonds for a long time until they came to Europe. They were collected from banks of rivers or tributaries disrupted in the Golkunda area.
When Marco Polo returned in the 13th century from his journey to China, he first brought diamonds to the West.
In the 17th century a wealthy French merchant named Tavernier returned from his travels to the East and brought back to Europe good quality diamonds from the city of Hyderabad.
In 1725 diamonds were discovered in Brazil in the province of Minas Gerais. Between 1844 and 1871, diamonds were produced intensively in Brazil, until no more diamonds remained in the area. The diamonds were found on the banks and in river channels.
At the end of the 19th century, diamonds were discovered in South Africa. Diamond seekers from all over the world came to the area. De Beers was established and took over diamond mining in South Africa and other parts of the world. It was during this period that modern mining began. It was discovered that the diamonds do not come from the rivers but from the depths of the earth. The diamonds are in the chimneys of a material called kimberlite and diamond seekers began digging in the ground to find chimneys of this material.
In 1954, diamonds were first discovered in Russia in the Yakutia territories, in the Kimberlite chimneys. When the Soviet Union disintegrated, the Russian state-owned diamond company Alrosa was established in Russia, which now controls the mining, sales and marketing of diamonds.
In 1983 a diamond mine was first operated in Australia. This mine is also unique in that it produces a lot of naturally brown and pink diamonds.
In 1991, a diamond mine was first discovered in northern Canada. The mine opened for operation in 1999. Diamonds were later discovered in more places and more mines opened.
Diamond mining sites today are mainly Botswana, South Africa, Canada, Russia, Australia, Namibia, Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Sierra Leone and other countries on the African continent.
May - Emerald
The origin of the name is from the word "market" in Sanskrit which means green. In Akkadian the stone was called Barraqtu. In Greek the stone was given the name Emeraldus (green gemstone) from Greek its name was rolled into emerald, until its name was changed in English to emerald.

The properties of emerald: Emerald is considered a stone that brings about physical, emotional and spiritual balance. It relieves stress, helps in times of change in seeing new directions. It purifies negative energies and helps treat vision, breathing and back problems.
According to Indian belief, emerald brings with it abundance, serenity, well-being and good luck.
Emerald is one of the precious stones in nature.
In ancient Egypt, emeralds were found in the belongings of the embalmed dead.
The emerald originates from Egypt, from which it came to India and Europe.
Emerald deposits have also been discovered in South America. The Aztecs believed that the emerald stone was sacred.
In Greek mythology to the magical wisdom Hermes Trismagistus (who was actually the incarnation of the Egyptian god Thut), he enacted magic laws on an emerald tablet called the "Emerald Table".
Some believe that the holy cup from which Jesus drank at the Last Supper was made of emerald.
Mining locations: Zambia, Colombia, Brazil, Russia.
June - Pearl
The pearl is an extraordinary gemstone because its origin is from the animal, i.e. a biological and not a mineral source. The pearl is formed inside an oyster in which a shellfish from the oyster department lives.
The pearl is made of an organic material formed from the secretions of mollusks as a result of a stimulus that penetrates the oyster. These secretions are stacked on top of each other in layers and over time form a ball that is shiny and spectacular in its beauty.
The pearl oysters are coated on their inner side with a material called nacre, called "mother of pearl", or pearl oysters. Citrus is a substance that is secreted repeatedly to protect the pearl from the intrusion of foreign bodies.
Because the pearl is made mainly of carbonated calcium, it is dissolved in acid - vinegar, wine and even orange juice.
Natural pearls are expensive and rare. Placing them from the sea is dangerous and nowadays they are formed less and less due to environmental and climatic changes. That is why today many cultivate cultured pearls, pearls that are grown in captive oysters and artificially stimulated. These pearls are rounder and smaller than natural pearls and therefore cheaper.
Ego Bay in Japan was among the first areas in the world where pearl farming began.
Artificial pearls are glass or plastic beads made in factories. Imitation pearls were made of glass coated with fish scales dust during the Renaissance and were called Majorca pearls.
The qualities attributed to Pnina are vitality, beauty, innocence, wisdom and integrity. Pearls are credited with healing properties of the digestive and immune systems and aiding in stress.
King Henry VIII of England used pearl powder to heal the open wound in his leg.
The pearl has been the favorite gemstone of kings and nobility for many years. In ancient times the extraction of pearls in the sea was difficult and was done by divers. Only nobles and kings could afford to wear pearls and so they symbolized wealth and nobility.
In the days of the Roman emperor Julius Caesar, only women of the nobility wore pearls.
In 2008, archeological excavations in Jerusalem found a gold earring set with a pearl and emerald from the Roman period.
During the Renaissance it was customary to weave pearls as an ornament in women's hair. According to Marco Polo, the kings of Malbar wore a necklace with 108 rubies and 108 pearls inherited between generations of kings. In Japan, pearl powder was used as makeup for geishas.
The Pearl in Mythology: In the past it was believed that pearls were the tears of angels over the sins of man that sank into the depths of the sea.
The Qur'an describes paradise as a place where the fruits of the trees are pearls and emeralds and everyone who enters its gates receives a pearl tent.
In Indian mythology it is said that the god Vishnu gave her the first pearl from the depths of the ocean and gave it to his daughter Pandaya on her wedding day.
Production locations:
It is now common to use cultured pearls whose main center of production is China, Japan, Tahiti and Australia.


July - Ruby
The name Ruby originates from the Latin word rubrum which means "red".
The properties and virtues attributed to the Ruby-
From ancient times the people believed that Ruby had magical powers. It is considered a source of health, wealth and wisdom. In the Middle Ages, ruby ​​was used as a medicine. In Eastern countries warriors would insert the ruby ​​into cuts in the skin because they believed that the stone would flow courage and resourcefulness into their blood. In India it was believed that the color of the stone radiated heat and if they put it in water it would make them boil. The ruby ​​was a symbol of wealth and power among the rulers of the past.
Ruby is a rare gem. The chemical composition is similar to that of sapphire, but is much rarer than it.
Wherever Ruby miners have a slightly different chemical composition. For example, a ruby ​​mined in Sri Lanka has a color that tends to be pink. Ruby mined in Thailand has a purple or brown hue due to iron residue. One of the main places to this day for ruby ​​mining is Minamer, where ruby ​​mining has been done for thousands of years. In the distant past, the King of Burma (Myanmar) enacted a law according to which if a ruby ​​stone is larger than 6 carats, it must be transferred to its owner immediately. Therefore, when the miners would find a particularly large ruby ​​stone, they would immediately break it into small stones and sell them.
In 2006, an 8.62-carat ruby ​​stone was auctioned off at Christie's auction house to London jeweler Lawrence Graff, who paid $ 3.6 million for it.
Mining sites - The rare ruby ​​stone is mined in a limited number of countries: Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan and Australia.


August - Peridot
The origin of the name Peridona is probably from the Arabic word "Faridat" which means "gem", or from the Greek word "peridona" which means "to give wealth".
Another name for the peridot stone is chrysolite. A Greek word meaning "golden stone", a name that indicates the golden yellow luster of the stone. The stone is also sometimes known as Olivine, which is the main chemical component in the stone.

The virtues attributed to the peridot stone are exorcism, reducing thirst in serious diseases and bringing joy because of its cheerful green color. Stone has the ability to heal and bring vitality to the whole body. It increases patience, confidence and assertiveness. It reduces stress, stimulates thought and brings emotional balance. The peridot is also beneficial for healing a damaged heart and a damaged ego and clears the way to the heart.
The uniqueness of the peridot is that it appears in only one color - green. The same green color does not change even under the influence of artificial light.
The peridot stone is difficult to polish because of weaknesses in the crystal that cause it to disintegrate into fragments.
The history of the peridot - Already in ancient Egypt, inlaid jewelry was found in the peridot, in the second millennium BC.
The Peridot Stone came to Europe by Crusaders returning from their travels. These stones were mistakenly considered emeralds. The peridot stones were also embedded in the church treasures.
Mining locations: Arizona, Australia, Afghanistan, Brazil, Myanmar, China and Pakistan.


September - Sapphire
Origin of the name - There is a version that says that the origin of the name is in the Greek word Spiros which means "blue stone". Another version is that the name comes from Sanskrit - from the word "sniper" which means "the one who is sacred to the planet Saturn".
The good quality blue sapphire is a rare and very expensive stone and therefore has many imitations. Substitutes for sapphire stone are blue natural gems like blue spinel, blue tourmaline, tanzanite, aolyte and even glass.
Healing properties and virtues attributed to the sapphire stone - healing properties for wounds, for removing foreign and harmful bodies from the human body, anti-toxic substance. The gemstone of the soul, a blue color reminiscent of the color of the sky, represents the purity of the soul, captures divine sympathy, makes peace between enemies, repels envy.
Among kings the sapphire stone occupies a place of honor and is often embedded in the crowns of kings, wands and luxury jewelry.
Mining locations:
Australia, Myanmar, Brazil, Tanzania and other African countries.



October - Opal
Origin of the name - from the Greek word opallios which means "color change", because of the unique feature of the reflection of the colors of the rainbow.

Healing properties and properties attributed to opal
Hope, faith and good luck. Changes the luck of the one who wears it for good, a belief that stems from the changing colors of the stone.
historical background
Already in the times of Greece and ancient Rome there was evidence of the Dark Stone. In England the Dark Stone was popular in the time of Queen Elizabeth I.
The Darkness is mentioned in Shakespeare's play "The 12th Night."
In 1829 a story was published by Sir Walter Scott about the Dark Stone that linked to the Stone of Bad Luck. As a result, the value of the stone dropped by more than 50%.
The production of dark stones was common in Hungary. In 1877 large opal deposits were discovered in southern Australia that overshadowed Hungarian production. The Australian opal has gained much publicity thanks to an opal stone known as The Flame Queen - a black opal stone weighing 253 carats.
There were times when it was believed that the dark brings bad luck. This may be due to the delicacy and fragility of the stone. The darkness cracks quickly, is sensitive to changes in temperature, abrasion and harsh chemicals. In ancient Rome it was believed that stone brought good luck because it could be seen as the reflection of the rainbow symbolizing hope.
Mining locations - Australia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Mexico, USA.

November - Yellow Topaz, Citrine
Origin of the name - According to one hypothesis, the origin of the name Topaz is from the word in Sanskrit tapas which means fire, which is reminiscent of the color of the stone. Another hypothesis is that the name comes from the name of the island of Topazius in the Red Sea, where rare gems were found. The word topazius means "to search" and the island was covered in fog and it was difficult to find it.
Healing properties and properties attributed to Topaz-
Eliminating sadness, giving courage, calming strong desires, strengthening love, wisdom, eliminating evil forces and healing many diseases.
The multiplicity of beliefs and healing properties attributed to Topaz proves the great importance they attached to stone.
When the topaz stone is polished, it is very similar in color to citrine. When the citrine is well polished, it is difficult for an unskilled person to distinguish between them. However, in a gemological laboratory the stones can be easily distinguished because topaz has a specific gravity 40% higher than the specific class of citrine.
Famous Topaz Stone-
One of the most famous topazes is a stone that was considered a diamond for years and was even named after it: Braganza Diamond. This topaz was part of the jewelry of the royal house of Portugal.
Mining locations - Brazil, Mexico, California, Texas, Sri Lanka, Nigeria, Russia, Burma, Russia as well as, in various countries in Africa.


December - Turquoise, Tanzanite, Blue Zircon, Blue Topaz
Origin of the name - the turquoise stone came to Europe from Persia via Turkey. The Europeans mistakenly thought that the turquoise originated in Turkey and therefore called the stone 'Turkish'.
Healing properties and properties attributed to turquoise-
In ancient Persia it was believed that the blue stone helps to overcome the "evil eye". The Persians used to weave turquoise stones in the mane or tail of horses and camels, in order to protect them. In Europe it was customary to give turquoise-studded rings as a "memorial" gift. It was further believed that stone has a property that prevents injuries and bone fractures.
Mining sites - The turquoise stone is easy to mine and is located in arteries close to the surface. Turquoise is found mainly in arid areas and deserts. Mining regions in the world today: Iran, United States: Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, California, Tibet and China.
historical background-
The turquoise stone is the oldest known gemstone in the world. Turquoise stones have been found in archeological excavations from the Neolithic period - about 8,000 years before our time. Turquoise can be found in various cultures from ancient Egypt, through Persia (modern-day Iran) to South America.
Jewelry inlaid with turquoise stones was found in the tombs of the pharaohs in Egypt. The turquoise stone was found in the rocks in the Sinai Desert and ancient Egypt had mines there about 6000 years ago. The ancient Egyptians also used to crush the turquoise into powder, which they used as eye makeup.
In Aztec culture, which ruled Mexico in the 15th and 16th centuries, religious objects of worship were decorated with turquoise stones.
In Europe there was a flourishing and great demand for turquoise-studded jewelry in the early 19th century, with the opening of the Suez Canal and the success of the play 'Cleopatra' which brought the turquoise stones into fashion.


All this is just a small part of the gems that exist in the world. There are lots more with so many shades, shapes, virtues and features of gems. Between them there is sure to be a stone that suits you.

How to celebrate Jewel Day?
Buy yourself a piece of jewelry with your favorite gemstone.
Make handmade jewelry.
Take advantage of this day to take care of your jewelry.
Learn about the different gems, their place in different history and cultures.

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