The March 1 (3-1) movement was one of the first Korean resistance movements against Japanese rule over them from 1910 to 1919. The movement's name refers to an event that took place on March 1, 1919, hence the name of the movement, which means "Movement Three- One "or "March First Movement" in Korean.
This day is a public holiday (in Korean the holiday is called: 삼일절). This is a day off for the entire population, and schools and most businesses are closed.
The movement was formerly called the Sam-il Movement and arose in response to the colonial occupation of the Japanese Empire.
In a speech delivered by American President Woodrow Wilson at the Paris Peace Conference in January 1919, he defined "fourteen points" outlining the right to national self-determination. Korean students studying in Tokyo issued a statement following the speech demanding freedom from colonial rule.
Events of March 1, 1919:
At 14:00, 33 activists who founded the Sam-il movement gathered at the Taehwagwan restaurant in Seoul. They read aloud the Korean Declaration of Independence designed by historian Choe Nam-seon:
"We hereby declare the independence of Korea and the freedom of the Korean people. We hereby declare all the nations of the world as a testimony to human equality. We hereby declare our descendants so that they can enjoy forever their inherent right in the country.
As much as this declaration stems from a history of five thousand years, as much as it stems from the loyalty of twenty million people, as much as it affirms our longing for the advancement of eternal freedom, it expresses our desire to take part in the excellent global reform of the human conscience. , And just action necessary for the coexistence of all mankind. Therefore, no force in this world can block or suppress it! "
After the announcement, they called the Central Police Station to inform them of their actions and were publicly arrested.
At that time, 14:00, and on the same day, crowds gathered in Pagoda Park to hear student Chong Zhang, reading the same statement in public. The activists then gathered for a peaceful procession, which the Japanese military police tried to suppress. Other special representatives related to the movement read aloud copies of the declaration of independence in various places around the country.
As the processions continued to grow, the Japanese military police could not control the crowd. Frightened Japanese officials called on military forces to calm the crowd, including naval forces. As public protests continued to grow, the repression became violent, resulting in the brutal assassination of many Koreans by the Japanese regime.
About 2,000,000 Koreans took part in the demonstrations. Several thousand were massacred by the Japanese regime. Tens of thousands were injured and tens of thousands more Koreans were arrested by the regime. Some of the arrested protesters were publicly executed.
In 1920, a Chunganari battle broke out in Manchuria between exiled Korean independence fighters and the Japanese army.
On May 24, 1949, South Korea declared March 1 a national holiday. General Chu Hong-hoi dedicated the first movement of martial arts taekwondo among the black belts to the Sam-il teul movement.
South Korea was liberated from Japanese rule only at the end of World War II, in 1945, when the United States defeated Japan.
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